Polity :- A form or process of civil government or constitution
The idea to have a constitution was given by MN Roy (political philosopher). , The Constitution was framed by the Constitution Assembly of India, set up in December 1946, in accordance with the Cabinet Mission Plan.
Dr. Sachidanad Sinha in 1946 become the interim chairman of the assembly, later Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as it permanent chairman and BN Rao was appointed as the Constitution Advisor.
The total membership of Constitution Assembly was 389, when 93 were representatives from the princely states and other from British India. The chairman of the Drafting committee was Dr. BR Ambedkar.
Enactment of the Constitution
- The Constitution adopted on 26th, November 1949, contained 395 Articles, 18 parts, and 8 schedules. Presently, it has 25 parts, 12 schedules and approximate 489 Articles. However, the number of the Articles in original Constitution is not changed but their subclauses are increased. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to complete the Constitution.
- Some of the provisions as those related to citizenship, elections, provisional parliament were given immediate effect.
- The Constitution came in to force on 26 January, 1950, known as Republic Day of India.
- The Constitution was delayed till 26 January because, in 1929, on this day Indian National Congress demanded Poorna Swaraj in Lahore session under j L Nehru.
- The Constitution Assembly adopted our National Flag on July 22, 1947. It was designed by Pingali Venkiah.